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PGT: Do you feel that criticism is valid even till today? And perhaps the country or the majority of the country's population might have been better off if we had perhaps adopted a slightly different approach...? And could you spell out what...?
AKS: Yes, well I think, I think an approach that concentrated more on human beings would have made a very substantial difference. I think one of the common features of what the world is looking for, salvation through free international trade, or salvation through heavy industrial investment, is the feature of exercising the instrumentality of one kind or another rather than the ultimate aims of the exercise. The aims of the exercise are of course human beings, and... that being the case, they seem to relate to, of course, what makes a difference to the well-being of the people involved, and then all the instrumentalities which could be terribly important have to be judged in that light. There is a further connection here, one of the things that brought out very sharply, and perhaps nowhere more than in the last 30 years of economic development experience have East Asian experience... the whole range of experiences from Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, China and Thailand, and that whole range, is the ?? of human beings in the process of economic that it also turns out that the ends of the action are also among the change... So most effective means of concentration on instrumentalities we've lost not only a focus on the bringing about change. And in this ultimate aim, but also on one of the most effective means. So, yes, I would say that the problem is still present. Now this is not to deny that a lot of things that have happened under economic reform certainly needed to be done: there is no question that the economy had a pretty non-viable structure of economic what is sometimes called the License Raj, and that needed to be control and changed, there is no question. humanity, not only in terms of the recipients of the benefits of economic But the connection of that with developments, and as the agents of change, as educated people taking intelligent decisions about their own lives, and that of others. I think that was missing, and I think that is very important.