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PGT: Dr Mashelkar did India choose some sort of a linear path, or a linear model, unlike countries like Japan and other countries in South Asia? We thought that technology is not just a handmaiden of science, but would so automatically come about if you developed science, and economic growth would inevitably follow thereafter. I mean did we have that kind of mindset?

RAM: I do believe, that we have as a matter of fact. In fact 60s and 70s, represent to me a time of lost opportunity, very frankly because, we should have gone on the right path. For instance, when one talks about Council of Scientific and Industrial Research the word ‘"scientific" as well as "industrial" was right there. So the charter was very clear.

PGT: This was in 42, when Council of Scientific and Industrial Research was set up…

RAM: Absolutely, absolutely. So we were not only expected to generate knowledge but use it for the good of our people, for economic development and social development. But those factors which will make that happen, I mean, if one really worked at it, look at industry for instance… Why would industry do research and development … because they want to put new products in the market place, and why would they want to do that… because they are scared that if they don’t replace their products themselves, then their competitors will do it for them. Competition is the keyword, and once competition was not there, in that particular region there was no innovation.