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PGT: Dr Uberoi, I interrupted you the last time, can I ask you once again, what should the country do, and you know, we’ve had a recent example of the Clinton administration slapping export curbs on Public Sector companies like Bharat Electronics Ltd, and the Department of Commerce and Central Intelligence Agency are claiming that there are a number of other companies which should be on the list, which are already on the US "watch list", Bharat Dynamics, Bharat Heavy Plates and Vessels, Hindustan Machine Tools, Bharat Heavy Electricals, and academic institutions as well, like the IIT at Bangalore and Chennai, and Prof Padmanabhan, director of the Indian Institute of Science, has said that this is not new, this has been happening for many years now…

Dr Uberoi: You mean that product innovation in India is picking up, but it is also true, pessimistically, that product innovation in low income countries has been as near nil as makes no difference, because there is a chain, and pure science is just one part of the chain, which begins with the conceptualisation of a new product, then research, design, development, and the design teams these days are very large, they can be as large as 100, 000, depending on the product, and then there is the setting up, starting up for production, manufacture, marketing, use, and finally phasing out of the product. Now, in some fields this whole chain has been set up in India, perhaps with some international cooperation, sometimes in the face of international competition. But in this culture, as you can see, teamwork simply cannot stop with having a large number of scientists, there has got to be an understanding across the board in the nation that making new products, (and without that there is no progress), is an affair in which everybody has to participate.